Superconducting Ceramics No. 7

Since superconducting ceramics have many excellent characteristics, such as complete conductivity and complete diamagnetism, the successful development and practical use of high-temperature superconducting materials will have an impact on the production of human society and the understanding of the structure of matter significant impact.It may bring about revolutions in many disciplines. Therefore, countries all over the world have invested a lot of manpower and material resources in research.

The application of high-temperature superconducting ceramics has the following aspects.

1. In terms of power system

(1) Transmission and distribution

According to the zero-resistance characteristics of superconducting ceramics, extremely large currents and power can be transmitted over long distances without loss. And now the dielectric loss of cables and transformers often accounts for 20% of the transmitted power.

(2) Superconducting coil

It can be made into a superconducting energy storage coil. The energy storage device made of it can store energy without loss for a long time, and directly store electromagnetic energy without energy conversion. The impact load of the power transmission system can be tracked and adjusted, and the peak The load is leveled.

(3) Superconducting generator

Since the resistance of superconducting ceramics is zero, the current density can reach (7~10)x10^5A/c㎡, and there is no need for an iron core, so there is no heat loss, and large-capacity, high-efficiency superconducting generators and magnets can be manufactured. Fluid generators, rotating electric machines, etc.

2. In terms of transportation

(1) Manufacturing superconducting maglev train

Due to the strong diamagnetism of superconducting ceramics, the maglev train has no wheels and "floats" on the rails by magnetic force. It has high speed, stable operation, safety and reliability.

(2) Superconducting magnetic thruster and space propulsion system

For example, ship electromagnetic propulsion device. The propulsion principle is: install a superconducting magnet inside the hull to generate a strong magnetic field in the sea water. At the same time, an electrode is placed on the side of the hull to generate a strong current in the seawater. In the seawater behind the stern, the magnetic lines of force interact with the current, and the seawater produces a strong driving force behind the hull.

3. In terms of mineral processing and prospecting

In terms of mining and metallurgy, since all materials are diamagnetic or paramagnetic, superconductors can be used for mineral processing and prospecting.

4. In terms of environmental protection and medicine

In terms of environmental protection, superconductors can be used to purify wastewater discharged from paper mills and petrochemical plants.

In terms of medicine and health, most organisms are diamagnetic, a few are paramagnetic, and a very few are strong magnetic. Superconductors can be used for wastewater treatment to remove bacteria, viruses, heavy metals and other poisons. In medicine, magnetic separation can be used to separate red blood cells from plasma. In addition, because certain bacteria, such as Staphylococcus albicans and cancer cells, are inhibited from growing in a strong magnetic field, it is being studied to heat the lesion with a low-frequency alternating strong magnetic field with drugs, which will kill the cancer cells.

5. In terms of high-energy nuclear experiments and thermonuclear fusion

The superconductor's strong magnetic field is used to accelerate the particles to obtain high-energy particles, and the superconductor is used to manufacture instruments for detecting particle motion tracks.

Nuclear fusion is a new technology for obtaining huge energy. However, the controlled thermonuclear reaction must have the following conditions: ①Deuterium and tritium must be heated to 3x(10^7~10^8)K; ②Satisfy the Lawson criterion-the product of plasma density n and energy confinement time τ is greater than 10^ 14S/c㎡, this requires a large magnetic field with a volume of several 10m3 and a magnetization strength of 1x10^8A/m to confine the high-temperature deuterium and tritium plasma in a small space. Conductive magnet. The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory of the University of California, USA, has built a 600t large-scale NbTi magnetic mirror nuclear fusion experimental device MFTF, which has an energy storage of about 3000MJ.

6. In electronic engineering

(1) Use the Josephson effect of superconductors to increase the operating speed and reduce the size of electronic computers. The switching time of the Josephson tunnel junction is 10^(-12)s, the heat generated during ultra-high-speed switching is only 10^(-6)W, the power consumption is very small, and its operation speed is 50 times faster than that of silicon transistors. The heat is only 1/1000 or less. It is an important content of high-temperature superconducting ceramic application research to make it highly integrated and develop ultra-small and ultra-high-performance computers.

(2) Devices made of superconductors, such as superconducting diodes, superconducting quantum interference devices, superconducting junction transistors, superconducting field effect transistors, superconducting magnetic flux sub-devices, etc.

Of course, the application of high-temperature superconducting ceramics is far more than the above. With the research and development and practical use of high-temperature superconductors, its application range will continue to expand, and a new industrial revolution will appear at that time.

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